Ethics For COINTELPRO Criminals #4

Mind Reading Technologies  

Chapter 2 of Social Exclusion and the Way Out begins with discussion about the relations between mind and body, and then moves on to discussion of the relations between mind and brain based on the latest scientific discoveries (Bonner, 2006). The author refers to a significant contribution to the study of memory by brain science. As a matter of fact, the recent technologies can search a person’s memory by monitoring brain activities. For example, when an experimenter shows an object to a subject, a machine can detect if the object is what his or her brain has seen before. This function is called brain-print, and is planned to be used for the criminal justice field.
    Furthermore, chapter 2 of Social Exclusion and the Way Out dipicts brief history of the rapid advances in neuroscience during the last two decades (Bonner, 2006, p. 21). The author seems to be trying to analyze from neuroscientific perspectives why social exclusion occurs (p.27).  I admire the author’s sinserity to try to use mind-reading technologies for alleviating socially weak people’s sufferings. Nevertheless, not all scientists work with such an altruistic intention – some of the scientists have monopolized the mind-reading technologies for their self-interests. 
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   Lo and behold, the technology to catch human brainwaves and analyze the thoughts was already developed as early as in 1970’s. The following is the patent document of, so to speak, “mind-reading / mind-control” which was oficially  called “Apparatus and method for remotely monitoring and altering brain waves.”

Inventor: Robert G. Malech
Patent number: 3951134
Filing date: Aug 5, 1974
Issue date: Apr 20, 1976

Abstract: Apparatus for and method of sensing brain waves at a position remote from a subject whereby electromagnetic signals of different frequencies are simultaneously transmitted to the brain of the subject in which the signals interfere with one another to yield a waveform which is modulated by the subject's brain waves. The interference waveform which is representative of the brain wave activity is re-transmitted by the brain to a receiver where it is demodulated and amplified. The demodulated waveform is then displayed for visual viewing and routed to a computer for further processing and analysis…

The major reason why most of us are ignorant to such an innovative technology alredy existing is because the government has kept these technologies secret in order to use them as secret weapons. As is often the case with unclassified weapons, the researchers secretly tested those machines on subjects without having informed consent. Many victims tried to make them public to accuse illegal operations. Concerning the atrocities of secret human experiments of mind-reading machines, we can access abundant information from the victims all over the world on the Internet. However, their claims have been rejected systematically by law enforcement, and they were automatically diagnosed as dillusion of schizophrenia by psychiatrists (Kilde, 1999).
    Suffering from unbearable distress, reportedly some of the victims have committed suicide. One of the non-profitable organizations for electric harassment victims, Technology Hanzai Higai Network, has witnessed more than seven victims who died from suicide over the last four years in Tokyo. According to the representative, Terukatsu Ishibashi (2012), every year over 8,000 people with mental disorders die from suicide in Japan, and many of them are allegedly victims of organized stalking / electric harassment. I heard some people say that this number is not so big compared to the entire population of the country. However, if several thousands of casualities every year was "small," the number of victims in Sep. 11th should be considered as even "smaller."

  Nevertheless, in March, 2011, the Obama administration finally held a public hearing to listen the information from the victims directly. The participants who testimonied the atrocities include a famous psychiatrist, an ex-military person, a mayor candidate, and so on. The name of this committie is “The U.S. Presidential Commission for Bioethical Issues” (2011), and the report on this public hearing is available at the U.S. government’s official website.

 

References

Bonner, A. (2006). Social exclusion and the way out: An individual and community response to human social dysfunction. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons.

 

Ishibashi, T. (2012).テクノロジー犯罪と嫌がらせ犯罪を撲滅するための要望書https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:QA7pICUBPx4J:www.geocities.jp/techhanzainetinfo/youbousho/20120426keishichou.pdf+&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESj5m7e4GuHLYl3gC5UBCZ4owCFlW8LuwXu368P0oeR90pZpm5SqYaD9oLVYzPSoLV9iqXdWANaWysKUVucVTqACu6NI9Eu5ZCi2KPl-p_9yXjNda4rA_s1Jehw4GShl3G3Twlgc&sig=AHIEtbTLHtVI2ibgAPzXFrfgrQfvGbp9lQ  (Retreived on Jan. 18, 2013)

Kilde, R. (1999). Microchip Implants, Mind Control, and Cybernetics, SPEKULA 3rd Quarter, 1999.

The U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2011). The U.S. Presidential Commission for Bioethical Issues.

Ethics For COINTELPRO Criminals #3

How Can Pyschologists Be Ethical?

   In the journal #1, absurdity of immoral experiments was discussed. In addition, the journal #2 pointed at useless ethical codes unless properly observed. Accordingly, we should be cautious when experiments that include any inhumanity are attempted. In fact, research on cruelty could be used for the opposite purposes such as an intentional torturing. For example, Seligman conducted the famous animal experiment in the U.S. Military School called SERE. There he found “Learned Helplessness.” In this research he succeeded in identifying some causes of depression. However, his findings were used in order to develop new techniques of torturing people by the U.S. Military (Ehrenreich, 2009). The discovery of the ways of sufferings was abused to intentionally cause sufferings to people. Concerning the issue, Myer (2005) reported in her journal the details of the U.S. Military’s inhumane experiments for developing the torturing techniques.

The SERE (the U.S. Military school) affiliate…said that “some of the folks” associated with the program seemed to enjoy using manipulative techniques. “They’d play these very aggressive roles, week after week”…Although there is no scientific basis for believing that coercive interrogation methods work better than less aggressive ones, the affiliate said that some of the sere psychologists he knew believed that to get someone to talk “you have to hurt that person” (Myer, 2005).

Moreover, retired Army Colonel, Patrick Lang, who had joined the SERE school, also testified as follows:

“Once, I was on the other side of the exercise, acting as captor and interrogator... You can manipulate people. And most people like power. I’ve seen some of these doctors and psychologists and psychiatrists who really think they know how to do this…it’s very easy to go too far” (Myer, 2005).

Accordingly, in addition to the Seligman’s method of afflicting animals into depression, various torturing techniques were exercised by the U.S. Military under the name of national security. One of their methods is called “noise stress.” This technique was actually used upon Guantánamo detainees around 2003. The detainees had “been subjected to blaring audiotapes of loud music, cats meowing, and human infants wailing.” Another cruel torturing technique was used, such as wrapping up the Quran with an Israeli flag and stomping on it in front of the Muslim detainees. Consequently, a mass suicide was attempted at Guantánamo, in August, 2003, in which “two dozen or so detainees tried to hang or strangle themselves” (Myer, 2005).

 It may not be surprising that the development of psychological manipulation techniques is utilized to satisfy men’s primitive desires. Twymann (2008) collected experts and survivers testimonies about sex-slaves for those rich and in power including the U.S. presidents, and he published the book “Mind Controlled Sex Slaves And The CIA.” The book reports that trauma-based psychological studies were abused to mind control the subjects into sex-slaves, many of whom were children.
[Advertisement] VPS  (The testymony of a former-sex-slave for Henry Kissinger and the U.S.Vice-President)

     The fundamental problem that underlies all these shameless misdeeds is that the perpetrators covered their work under the name of “National Security.” Thus, check and balance is required in scientific experiments as well. There should be a more powerful checking system which can examine if researchers are properly observing their ethical codes. Besides, the system should be completely independent from any political and even academic authorities —and ideally, an international organization should become an observer. 
     Moreover, it has to be mandated for experimenters to participate in their own experiments at least once as a human subject in order to prove the safty of the experiment. Otherwise, the ethical codes for the Psychologists would be a mere name.This is not the case of coersion because this rule does not force “the other people” to get involved. Besides, if an experimenter feels that his/her experiment is too risky, he/she should call off such a dangerous plan in the first place.
    Furthermore, the experimenters should first ask their family members to be the subjects. Otherwise, how could we trust such an insecure experiment that the experimenter cannot allow the family to participate? In this manner, no one would dare to design an experiment which can make their wife, sisters, or daughters sex-slaves.

 

 

References

 

American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and Code of conduct. Washington, D.C: APA.

Ehrenreich, B. (2009). Bright-sided: How the relentless promotion of positive thinking has undermined America. New York: Metropolitan Books.


Mayer, Jane. "The Experiment -- The Military Trains People to Withstand Interrogation. Are Those Methods Being Misused At Guantanamo?" New Yorker, July 11, 2005, 60.


Twyman, T. (2008). Mind controlled sex slaves and the CIA: A collection of essays and interviews about Project Monarch. New Brunswick, NJ: Global Communications/Conspiracy Journal.


Ethics For COINTELPRO Criminals #2

Hypocritic Scientists

    Another reason why unethical experiments should no longer be allowed is simple. Human beings have already experienced enough examples of inhumanity – Look at what happened in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in Auschwitz, in Katyn Forest in Poland, in Son-My in Vietnam, in Mainland China during the Cultural Revolution, and in Cambodia under the Pol Pot regime. Why would we need to prove human beings’ cruelty by conducting another cruel experiment like Milgram’s?

    For the remorse and also for prevention of further unethical conducts, the American Psychological Association's (APA) legislated the researchers’ ethic codes titled: The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Although these codes have been regularly revised, what they regard as primary ethical principles are the same – autonomy of participants (no coercion), no maleficence (non-harmful), beneficence, and justice.  These values appear in its 2002 edition as the rule of informed consent in section 3.10, avoidance of false or deceptive statements in 5.01, protection of animal rights—minimize the pain of animal subjects— in 8.09 (d), using animals for painful experiments only when there is no alternative procedure available in 8.09 (e), and avoidance of plagiarism in 8.11 – 14.

     Nevertheless, merely legislating ethical codes does not guarantee that every researcher will follow them. On the contrary, legislation of rules may drive evil researchers into underground experiments. In fact, as early as in 1947 similar ethical codes were adopted by the U.S. government to prohibit human experiments without a voluntary consent of the subjects. This ethical rule is known as the Nuremberg Code. However, CIA worried that the U.S. might be left behind in the race of developing mind control techniques between the U.S., the Soviet Union, and the mainland China. Hence, the CIA agents secretly carried out field experiments in Japan in 1950, which was under military occupation of the U.S. and its allies. There, the agents tested the effect of amphetamine drug, using it on uninformed subjects. This human experiment violated the Nuremberg Code. However, the fact has long been kept secret until recent days under the name of national security.

Source: Mind Control ~ America's Secret War (History Channel)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mYlRMX7VIe4

References

 

American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and Code of conduct. Washington, D.C: APA.

Ethics For COINTELPRO Criminals #1

Research Ethics

 

     In 2010 in order to attend a meditation seminar I visited a huge pharmaceutical company in Thousand Oaks, which a friend of mine works for. This corporation owns humongous chemical and biological experiment facilities, and all laboratory buildings are huge enough to occupy almost the whole town. The meditation seminar was held in their lecture hall building. There I saw the corporation’s slogans written on banners and hung on the wall. One of them said: “Be Ethical.”  The moment I saw it, I wondered why such a common sense was written among their business mottos. I felt it even funny since in the environment which I was raised in, basic ethics such as not harming other’s lives, including animals, is supposed to be taught by our parents when we are toddlers. To me, such basic ethics does not seem to suit something that a corporation teaches to full-fledged, adult researchers.

   However, as I took several courses of psychology later at the university, I figured out why such an elemental slogan was hung on the wall at the company’s lecture hall – because unethical experiments do happen. For the same reason, to teach experimenter’s ethics, Milgram’s electric shock experiment has been cited over and over again in psychology classes all over the world.

Milgram’s experiment was unethical because a part of the procedure was deception and the outcome was harmful to the participants. The Milgram’s experiment lacked an agreement from the participants in advance. He should have explained the procedures, especially about the purpose of the experiment before it was carried out. This is called informed consent. All psychology experiments today require to provide participants with enough information about the experiment except the cases where there is a legitimate reason to hide the purpose of the experiment (APA Ethical Codes 3.10).

Moreover, Milgram’s experiment pretended to include torturing the people although actual electric shock was not conducted. Some participants claimed after the experiment that they suffered severe stress from this trick.  
Keitel at Nuremberg Trial (Wilhelm Keitel testifying at the Nuremberg Trials: He claims that he was "just following orders.)

Although there was a deception in this experiment, Milgram seemed to intend to reveal that ordinary people can be cruel if ordered by authority. Probably he hoped that revealing the mechanism of human’s obedience would contribute to preventing the atrocities they had witnessed during the World War II, especially in Germany.

  However, his experiment itself was unethical because apparently he ignored the dignity of the subjects. In other words, under the name of scientific research, Milgram abused authority power. Probably, he assumed that he was superior to ordinary people and had a right to command and/or deceive the participants. This is an irony, because the abuse of authority power was exactly the issue which consequent atrocities we witnessed in the 20th century-- Ordinary German people were ordered to implement inhumane deeds under the Nazis regime.
220px-Hitler_1928_crop.jpg

In addition, it is a contradiction to carry out an experiment in an immoral manner in order to enhance human morality. For example, finding a solution to stop making people cruel, an experiment which induces people’s cruelty is self-contradictory. This is as hypocritic as capital punishment intended to punish a killing by killing a person. Therefore, the similar experiments would not be conducted the way Milgram did. Any research which includes unethical procedures should no longer be performed.

References

 

American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and Code of conduct. Washington, D.C: APA.

Mindfulness For COINTELPRO Victims #7

Meditations as Biological Interventions

Various benefits of meditations were already known to Buddhist practitioners for over two thousand and five hundred years. However, for scientists, particulally those in the Western world, it was inconceivable that meditation can even change the structure of brain. Nonetheless, as already discussed, rapid development of brain-research technologies, such as PET, fMRI, and EEG, have helped identify which neural changes in brain meditation has enhanced. As a result, the fact was revealed that meditations can intervene with biological changes in the brain. In other words, the mind training changes the brain, which subsequently results in emotional and behavioral changes so that patients can correct maladaptive moods and behaviors. Moreover, with fMRI, reaserchers can observe how strongly one region in the brain is connected to another region functionally. These studies have helped understand the mechanism of various mental disorders.   
hippocampus

As a basic study on structural changes in the brain, there is a well-known brain-research of taxi drivers in London . Marguire (2000) and the other researchers found that posterior hippocampi of London taxi drivers are significantly larager than those of non-taxi drivers. Hippocampus in human brain is considered to be responsible for spatial memory and navigation ability. The researchers also found that Hippocampal volume positively correlated to the amount of time the subjects drove as a taxi driver. Thus, the resaerch suggests that structural cahnges in the brain occurrs in accordance with environmental demand.  (Recommended Video: Taxi Driver's Brains http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i9JPkUE2IJw ) 
  On the other hand, Davidson (2012) researched a type of meditation so called “Loving-kindness meditation” (p. 218). This meditation is widely practiced among Buddhists to cultivate non-discriminatory compassion for themselves and others. Usually, meditators start with wishing their own happiness. For the next, they wish for happiness of people they like. Finally, they expand the range of empathy to people they hate. Davidson (2012) monitored and recorded the brain activity of the meditators measured with fMRI. He found that those who practiced loving-kindness meditation showed significant changes in brain activity, particularly in Amygdala (p.222). There are even more sensational findings -- for instance, by Lazer (2005) -- that the middle Prefrontal Cortex is physically thicker in mindfulness meditation practitioners. 

 Concerning depression, Davidson (2012) similarly used the brain-research technologies in order to analyze the onset of depression. He explains that depression is characterized as overactivitiy in specific regions in the frontal cortex (p.174). Regarding these studies, another neuroscientist, Mayberg found a fact that cognitive-based therapy muted over-activity in the Prefrontal Cortex (Mayberg et al, 2002). That is to say, psychological changes in mind affected biological changes in the brain. Prefrontal Cortex was supposed to initially control our cognition. However, it can be concluded from these research that the mind and the brain are constantly interacting with each other. 
depressed-vs-normal-brain-scan.jpg 
    Furthermore, Davidson (2012) points at the other character of depressed patients' brain. According to his study, the connectivity between the middle prefrontal gyrus and the neucleus accumbens dimished in dpressed patients. Strong connections between these two regions are necessary to sustain positive emotions, and disconnection of those is considered to cause vanishing of pleasure in short period in depressed patients (p.152).

 Based on a plenty of research like the ones shown above, mindfulness, as scientifically validated method, began to be incorporated into cognitive therapy in the Western world. This new style of therapy, so called, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), was named by Teasdale, one of the significant researchers in the study of cognitive therapy for depression (Teasdale, 2004). Nowadays, MBCT is acknowledged as the effective method of stress reducing and  depression treatment. Schwartz (2002), the author of the book “The Mind and The Brain,” describes this new trend as follows:

The will, it was becoming clear, has the power to change the brain—in OCD, in stroke, in Tourette’s, and now in depression—by activating adaptive circuitry. That a mental process alters circuits involved in these disorders offers dramatic examples of how the ways someone thinks about thoughts can effect plastic changes in the brain (p.250).

    Another neuropsychologist, named Rick Hanson (2009), also introduced in his book “Buddha’s Brain” the scientific evidence of biological changes caused by meditations (p. 85). For instance, he cites several research findings that exemplify biological changes in the brain as a result of meditation practice, namely: “Increases in size of gray matter in the insula (Hölzel et al, 2008), increases in the activation of the left frontal regions, which lifts mood” (Davidson, 2004), and so forth. In addition, Hanson (2009) lists some other biological changes enhanced by meditations, such as decreases in cortisol (stress hormone) level, and strengthening of the immune system (Tang et al, 2007).

 

References

 

Davidson, R. J. (January 01, 2004). Well-being and affective style: neural substrates and biobehavioural correlates. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 359, 1449, 1395-1411.

Davidson, R. J., & Begley, S. (2012). The emotional life of your brain: How its unique patterns affect the way you think, feel, and live--and how you can change them. New York: Hudson Street Press.

Hölzel, B. K., Ott, U., Gard, T., Hempel, H., Weygandt, M., Morgen, K., & Vaitl, D. (January 01, 2008). Investigation of mindfulness meditation practitioners with voxel-based morphometry. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3, 1, 55-61.

Hanson, R., & Mendius, R. (2009). Buddha's brain: the practical neuroscience of happiness, love & wisdom. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.

Lazar, S. W., Kerr, C. E., Wasserman, R. H., Gray, J. R., Greve, D. N., Treadway, M. T., McGarvey, M., ... Fischl, B. (January 01, 2005). Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. Neuroreport, 16, 17, 1893-7.

Mayberg, H. S., Silva, J. A., Brannan, S. K., Tekell, J. L., Mahurin, R. K., McGinnis, S., & Jerabek, P. A. (January 01, 2002). The functional neuroanatomy of the placebo effect. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 5, 728-37.


Maguire, E. A., Gadian, D. G., Johnsrude, I. S., Good, C. D., Ashburner, J., Frackowiak, R. S., & Frith, C. D. (January 01, 2000). Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, 8, 4398-403.

Schwartz, J., & Begley, S. (2002). The mind and the brain: Neuroplasticity and the power of mental force. New York: Regan Books/HarperCollins Publ.

Teasdale, J. D. et al. (January 01, 2004). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: replication and exploration of differential relapse prevention effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 1, 31-40.


Tang, Yi-Yuan, Ma, Yinghua, Wang, Junhong, Fan, Yaxin, Feng, Shigang, Lu, Qilin, Yu, Qingbao, ... Posner, Michael I. (n.d.). Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation. National Academy of Sciences.
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yenu

Author:yenu
The Writer of 『拝啓 ギャングストーカー犯罪者の皆様』(Dear COINTELPRO Criminals) and <集団ストーカーの死> The Death of Gangstalker; also Co-Editor of 「新しいタイプの人権侵害・暴力」 Unprecedented Human Rights Violation

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